Pakistan Economic Survey 2018-19 158 federal and provincial governments have to improve their capacities, sectoral governance and increase resources for education. The level descriptors delineate qualifications of increasing complexity in terms of skills, as well as levels of responsibility, from functions that require supervision (level 1) to the ability to perform with full autonomy (level 4). Other changes include the introduction of a new two-year associate degree and the adoption of a U.S.-style semester and credit system. More recent data from UIS are not available as of early 2017. International Organization for Migration. There are seven groups or streams available in higher secondary education, including general, humanities, science, pre-medical, pre-engineering, medical technology, and home economics. According to the Global Youth Development Index published by the Commonwealth, a measure which uses the domains of civic participation, education, employment and opportunity, health and well-being, and political participation to gauge the progress of young people, Pakistan ranked only 154th of 183 countries, trailing sub-Saharan African nations like Sierra Leone or Ethiopia. Today, Pakistan’s national regulations formally stipulate a four-year bachelor’s degree in education or its equivalent as the minimum requirement to teach at Pakistani schools, from elementary through higher secondary levels. Indigenous medical systems like Unani, Ayurvedic, and Homeopathic medicine are licensed professions in Pakistan as well. Requirements also include an entry test.A fairly standard weighting of the selection criteria is 10 percent for the SSC, 40 percent for the HSC, and 50 percent for the entrance test. While there were only two private HEIs in Pakistan at the beginning of the 1990s, there are now 83 private DAIs, enrolling some 19 percent of all university students. By comparison, semester fees at public institutions are relatively nominal, averaging 60,000 to 90,000 rupees (USD$390 to USD$585). While literacy rates in cities like Lahore, Islamabad, and Karachi are close to 75 percent, for instance, these rates can be as low as 9 percent in the “tribal regions” of Baluchistan, Pakistan’s largest and poorest province. There are Early childhood education (ECE) for children between the ages of three and four has historically been given little attention even in more affluent urban areas, where patchy public provision may be supplemented with private kindergartens. Those who have earned it are allowed to teach at the elementary school level while the system transitions to the new bachelor’s degree requirement. Islamic religious education has and continues to play a prominent role in Pakistan. 2014. The assessment of institutions is mostly based on the evaluation of institutional self-assessments and HEC site inspections. There are currently 209 recognized degree-awarding institutions (DAIs), up from 59 in 2001 and 139 in 2010. 2015. While enrollment ratios in some major cities are close to universal, Pakistan has 22.7 million out-of-school children (OOSC), as mentioned earlier. They include certificates equivalent to the completion of middle school, secondary school (shahadatul sanvia aama), and higher secondary school (shahadatul sanvia aama)—credentials that are formally considered on par with SSC and HSC exams by government authorities. Elementary education is five years in length (grades 1 to 5), followed by three years of middle school (grades 6 to 8), and four years of secondary education, divided into two years of lower-secondary and two years of upper-secondary education (5+3+2+2). Introduction. To become affiliated with DAIs, colleges must meet certain minimum requirements set forth by the HEC and the affiliating university, which determines the syllabi, conducts periodic examinations—including annual progression exams and graduation exams—and awards the final degree. Recruitment and admissions: Fostering transparency on the path to higher education. As discussed below, the current administration of Prime Minister Imran Khan also seeks to achieve greater standardization by introducing a common national school curriculum. In 2018, there were 40,210 students studying wholly in Pakistan for U.K. qualifications, making Pakistan the fourth-largest British TNE market worldwide. The gross enrollment rate (GER) in secondary education is as low as 43 percent before dropping down to 9 percent at the tertiary level—an extremely low percentage by global standards. Increasing numbers of Pakistani students are interested in learning Chinese. For the most part, Pakistan has a relatively consistent cluster of top institutions, most of them public, in terms of both domestic and international rankings. The government is committed to move on all of these While assistant, associate, and full professors must formally have a PhD, entry-level lecturers in most academic disciplines except engineering, information technology, computer science, medical sciences, law, and studio arts and design can teach with just a master’s degree (18 years of total education). While most madrasahs are unregistered institutions that provide an almost exclusively religious education, focusing on studying the Koran and Arabic and Persian languages, others are formally affiliated with madrasah examination boards and incorporate the compulsory subjects of the national school curriculum. Pakistan’s education system has evolved substantially from both its Islamic and British historical roots. The Pakistani government estimates that only about a third of children between the ages of three and four participate in formal early childhood education. There are also sizable numbers of international students from various countries coming to Pakistan to study at Islamic universities or madrasahs. PakistanEducation is an education website. The federal government has primary oversight of both higher education and technical and vocational education (TVET). 171-177, Accessed February 2017, Agriculture, biological sciences, business studies, computer science, engineering, physical sciences, social sciences, veterinary sciences, Master of Science, Master of Arts, Master of Philosophy, Master of Engineering, Master of Commerce, Master of Technology, and so on, Final certificate (for example, Higher Secondary School Certificate or Intermediate Certificate)—sent by the applicable Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Mark sheet/result card—sent by the applicable Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Diploma or Certificate (for example, Diploma of Associate Engineer or other diploma or certificate awarded by an applicable Board), Mark Sheet/Result Card sent by the applicable Board, Photocopy of degree certificate—submitted by the applicant, Transcript/Mark Sheet/Result Card—sent by the institution attended, For completed doctoral programs, a written statement confirming the conferral of the degree—sent by the awarding institution, Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC), Bachelor’s Degree (university, four years), Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery. The number of affiliated colleges in Pakistan has consequently mushroomed since the 1990s. Here again the results are devastating, particularly for girls, who are frequently kept at home to cook and do housework so that both parents can work to keep the family afloat. The goal is to create a system of competency-based, nationally standardized TVET qualifications that are aligned with international standards. In Canada, for instance, the number of Pakistani students has doubled over the past decade, if on a relatively small scale (4,050 students in 2019). While there are six Indian institutions included among the top 500 in the current 2020 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, for instance, Quaid-i-Azam University is the only Pakistani institution featured in this group (at position 401–500). Most common nomenclature used for name of credentials is Bachelor of (field of study), Five-year programs are offered in architecture, dentistry, homeopathy, law, medicine, pharmacy, veterinary science, and traditional systems of medicine (Unani, Ayurveda, and homeopathic medicine)*. In a recent development, the MFEP announced that madrasah students will sit for federal board examinations and study the national curriculum by 2020 as part of the government’s drive to establish a uniform education system across Pakistan.